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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:wxbaili888.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)由(you)主体、驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)系统和控制(zhi)系统三个基(ji)本部分组(zu)(zu)成。按机(ji)器人(ren)结构分类为(wei)(wei)直角(jiao)坐标(biao)(biao)型,机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)沿二维直角(jiao)坐标(biao)(biao)系移动(dong)(dong)(dong)。主体部分通常(chang)采(cai)用龙(long)门式结构,由(you)y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁与(yu)导(dao)轨、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)、十字滑(hua)(hua)座、立柱(zhu)、过渡连接(jie)板和基(ji)座等部分组(zu)(zu)成,z向(xiang)(xiang)的直线运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)皆(jie)为(wei)(wei)交流伺服电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)通过蜗(wo)轮(lun)减速(su)(su)器驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)齿(chi)轮(lun)与(yu)y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)上(shang)固定的齿(chi)条作(zuo)滚动(dong)(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件沿导(dao)轨快速(su)(su)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件为(wei)(wei)质(zhi)量较轻的十字滑(hua)(hua)座和z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)采(cai)用由(you)铝合金拉制(zhi)的型材。横(heng)梁采(cai)用方钢型材,在(zai)横(heng)梁上(shang)安装有导(dao)轨和齿(chi)条,通过滚轮(lun)与(yu)导(dao)轨接(jie)触,整(zheng)个机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)都悬挂在(zai)其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于(yu)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)速度快,加速度大(da),加减速时间(jian)(jian)短。当输(shu)(shu)(shu)送较(jiao)重的(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)时,惯量(liang)(liang)大(da),因(yin)(yin)此,伺服驱(qu)动(dong)电机(ji)(ji)要(yao)(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)和(he)(he)制动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能力,支(zhi)撑元(yuan)件(jian)也要(yao)(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度及强度。只有(you)这样,才能使(shi)伺服电动(dong)机(ji)(ji)满(man)足桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响应(ying)、高(gao)刚度及高(gao)精度要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)。在(zai)选(xuan)择合适伺服电动(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下(xia),根据(ju)(ju)物料运(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)(he)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)节(jie)拍(pai),计算(suan)出伺服系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)(he)轨迹,对(dui)(dui)驱(qu)动(dong)器(qi)PID参数进行(xing)(xing)动(dong)态调(diao)整(zheng)。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)根据(ju)(ju)接收到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移、速度指令,经变化、放(fang)大(da)并调(diao)整(zheng)处理(li)后,传(chuan)递(di)给运(yun)动(dong)单元(yuan),通(tong)过光纤传(chuan)感器(qi)对(dui)(dui)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)状态进行(xing)(xing)实时检测,在(zai)高(gao)速搬运(yun)过程(cheng)中(zhong),运(yun)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)在(zai)极短的(de)(de)(de)(de)时间(jian)(jian)内到(dao)达(da)给定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)速度,并能在(zai)高(gao)速行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)中(zhong)瞬间(jian)(jian)准停(ting),通(tong)过高(gao)分(fen)辩率绝对(dui)(dui)式(shi)编(bian)码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)插(cha)补(bu)运(yun)算(suan),控制机(ji)(ji)械误差和(he)(he)测量(liang)(liang)误差对(dui)(dui)运(yun)动(dong)精度的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。由于(yu)被输(shu)(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)不(bu)(bu)同,质量(liang)(liang)也不(bu)(bu)同,因(yin)(yin)此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)有(you)多种(zhong)规格(ge)和(he)(he)系(xi)列(lie)。在(zai)选(xuan)择时,根据(ju)(ju)被输(shu)(shu)(shu)送工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量(liang)(liang),加工的(de)(de)(de)(de)节(jie)拍(pai)来(lai)选(xuan)取。但(dan)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)手(shou)臂,夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)方式(shi),则(ze)根据(ju)(ju)被输(shu)(shu)(shu)送工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)(jia)具(ju)定(ding)夹(jia)(jia)方式(shi)来(lai)设计(见图2)。

机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)能够借助可编(bian)程(cheng)序来处理和(he)执行任务。机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要(yao)由手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回(hui)转装置、运(yun)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)及(ji)驱动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)组成(cheng)。通过(guo)对工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)外(wai)形(xing)或工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)上(shang)定位(wei)(wei)支撑点定位(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)。例(li)如,在(zai)汽(qi)车发动(dong)机(ji)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)物流输送中,桁架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块会根据(ju)(ju)缸体(ti)、缸盖(gai)、曲轴等(deng)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外(wai)形(xing)特(te)点,选(xuan)取(qu)不同的(de)(de)(de)定位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)方(fang)(fang)式(shi)。柔性(xing)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)采用气缸和(he)电机(ji)进行定位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块的(de)(de)(de)切换驱动(dong),一套机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)可完成(cheng)不同品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)搬运(yun)工(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定位(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块可根据(ju)(ju)产(chan)品(pin)质(zhi)量和(he)外(wai)形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)大小采用系(xi)列(lie)化设计,机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定位(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块安装方(fang)(fang)式(shi)相同,针对不同系(xi)列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian),只(zhi)需切换相应的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定位(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块即可,满足快速切换的(de)(de)(de)需要(yao)。这(zhei)样,当加(jia)工(gong)(gong)不同品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian),只(zhi)须变(bian)换夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块就可实(shi)现,提(ti)高了桁架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线(xian)桁架机(ji)械手(shou)输送装置的(de)发展(zhan)及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展,经历了刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时(shi)代。就(jiu)目前而(er)言, 在国内二(er)者均有之。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆杆、抬起步伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展,由(you)(you)其组成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐(zhu)步替代组合(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它以适应小批量(liang)多品(pin)种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到(dao)市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可,并称其为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种以加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然(ran)为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可谓是(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形式以刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手)并存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)全部由(you)(you)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手组成(cheng),这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心配(pei)以桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又(you)称之为(wei)敏(min)捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏(min)捷(jie)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要组成(cheng)部分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距可根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)(zhi)随意(yi)改(gai)(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang)位(wei)置(zhi)(zhi)不再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按(an)照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距或(huo)步距倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求(qiu)进(jin)行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang),且(qie)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可根据生产(chan)(chan)节拍及(ji)(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而(er)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)。而(er)真正(zheng)体现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要一面是(shi)(shi),当(dang)(dang)被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部分(fen)不会不适应而(er)全部更换,只要改(gai)(gai)变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程序(xu)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手局部结构即可。采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整(zheng)体的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智(zhi)能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)(tong)一。因此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手才在当(dang)(dang)今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多地被采(cai)用(yong),使整(zheng)个生产(chan)(chan)过(guo)程通过(guo)信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)流(liu)(liu)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)进(jin)行(xing)控制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程中,所需各(ge)种信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)收集、处理、反馈,并通过(guo)电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其他控制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压(ya)、气(qi)压(ya)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)分(fen)级控制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)流(liu)(liu)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)分(fen)为(wei)由(you)(you)中央管理计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)(liu)控制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元控制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)以及(ji)(ji)信(xin)(xin)(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组成(cheng)。目前,汽(qi)车制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造业中加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发(fa)(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖及(ji)(ji)曲轴(zhou)等(deng)大批量(liang)关键零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采(cai)用(yong)了桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图(tu)3)。

2. 国内(nei)外的差距

当下,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展很(hen)快,技(ji)术水(shui)平有(you)了很(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提高(gao),与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)变得(de)越(yue)来越(yue)小(xiao),甚至有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比(bi)已经没有(you)什么差距(ju)。特别(bie)是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)科技(ji)专项的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开展,为(wei)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上档(dang)次(ci)上水(shui)平提高(gao)了加(jia)(jia)(jia)速(su)度,成(cheng)绩显而易见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这(zhei)几年(nian)发展的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特别(bie)快,但柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术水(shui)平和(he)档(dang)次(ci),较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)还很(hen)明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采(cai)用桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)较为(wei)普遍,而国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内却(que)为(wei)数不(bu)多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)汽车(che)生产(chan)市场所(suo)采(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)带桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口。如无锡(xi)柴油发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)(gang)(gang)体缸(gang)(gang)(gang)盖(gai)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包(bao),由BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧(jin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏(lou)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)(zai)线(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩(heng)磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)。输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)采(cai)用空中(zhong)桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)。仅(jin)以汽车(che)制造业(ye)而言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian),采(cai)用桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)屈指可数。大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集团和(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集团等生产(chan)出了该方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian),并在(zai)(zai)生产(chan)实际(ji)中(zhong)得(de)到了应用。图4是大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集团生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)(gang)体加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两(liang)(liang)种缸(gang)(gang)(gang)体,分别(bie)为(wei)四缸(gang)(gang)(gang)和(he)六缸(gang)(gang)(gang),其输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)采(cai)用空中(zhong)桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)两(liang)(liang)端为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等形(xing)式。桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)两(liang)(liang)个,一个上料,一个下料。它的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功,标志着我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水(shui)准迈进(jin)。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)只是数量上(shang)的(de)(de)比较,其实真正的(de)(de)原因还(hai)是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)水平(ping)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外有着一(yi)定的(de)(de)差距(ju)。柔性(xing)(xing)加工自(zi)动线(xian)(xian)采用的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou),也(ye)是从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外进口的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内还(hai)没有专门生产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)厂家。如今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一(yi)等一(yi)些(xie)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)生产(chan)厂家的(de)(de)涌(yong)出,为国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)柔性(xing)(xing)加工自(zi)动线(xian)(xian)带(dai)来了希望(wang),进而缩(suo)小(xiao)了与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外在(zai)生产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)方面的(de)(de)差距(ju),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)在(zai)柔性(xing)(xing)加工自(zi)动线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)应用也(ye)越来越多,从而打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)市场被外国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断(duan)。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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